Types of wood: Wood is a living and natural material


Wood is a living and natural material. In the trunk, the part closest to the center is called heartwood, while the outer part is called the sapwood. Always in the center there is the marrow around which are arranged the rings that indicate the growth of the tree. Each ring corresponds to a year of growth and from the number of these we can easily calculate the age of the tree.

The trees, cut with special machinery, are taken to sawmills where the trunk is cut according to some well-defined patterns. After that, the wood is seasoned in which its moisture content is reduced to acceptable levels in order to work it. Normally natural drying is the most followed and consists in placing the wooden planks, appropriately spaced and protected by a covering, outdoors. After a set period the boards are ready to be worked, but often the level of humidity reached is still a bit high for the timber destined for the interior and must be treated artificially.


Among the wood worked are mainly plywood, plywood, chipboard and lamellar.

The multilayers are generally made with sheets of poplar or birch arranged orthogonally to each other so as to cancel the forces along the direction of the grain. They are ideal for some structures and can be of different sizes and thicknesses. The cut and the drilling do not present obstacles, but the surfaces can be slightly frayed after the operation: you must therefore always intervene with sandpaper. The use of screws does not present problems on the flat face of the sheet, while on the thickness, ie where you see the various glued veneers, it is not desirable because a good seal is not guaranteed.

The paniforti are made of two sheets of poplar or birch veneer separated by hardwood shingles to form the structure of the same paniforte. Given its strength qualities, it is particularly recommended for the realization of doors, shelving and shelves.

The shavings are made with finely chopped wood scraps, pressed and glued to form panels of various sizes and thicknesses. They are used more than anything else coated with ant or plastic materials and often we find them in the worktops of modern kitchens or in the doors of the uprights of the bedroom cabinets or modular bookcases of living rooms. The chipboard suffers from humidity and if it gets wet its structure will swell and also cause the overlying coating to melt. The use of nails with this material is not particularly indicated, usually suitable screws similar to self-tapping screws are used.

MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard) is a fiber board of medium density. It is made from wood waste, steam treated and bonded with thermosetting adhesives. It is therefore an extremely compact material that, unlike the chipboard, can be worked as if it were solid wood, then carved and milled without risking crumbling. It is suitable for the construction of walls of furniture, floors and other similar buildings. It is considered an ecological material because its production does not involve the felling of trees.

Finally, the laminated wood is made up of solid wood strips glued together to form panels of various sizes and thicknesses. It is robust and lends itself to numerous uses such as table tops or kitchens, various furniture, book shelves. Compared to a solid wood board of the same size, the lamellar panel offers significantly higher strength and bending. It can be found easily in DIY centers in various sizes.